If a contract does not contain provisions for other agreements or measures, only the text of the treaty is legally binding. In general, an amendment to the Treaty only commits the States that have ratified it and the agreements reached at review conferences, summits or meetings of the States Parties are not legally binding. The Charter of the United Nations is an example of a treaty that contains provisions for other binding agreements. By signing and ratifying the Charter, countries have agreed to be legally bound by resolutions adopted by UN bodies such as the General Assembly and the Security Council. Therefore, UN resolutions are legally binding on UN member states and no signature or ratification is required. Non-governmental organizations, UNEP and several regional governments have laid the groundwork for international plastic pollution policy, and there is ample evidence that reducing plastic pollution will mitigate the impact on marine ecosystems and the economy. Concerned countries and countries should build on ongoing political and research efforts and insist on international measures to contain the growing deluge of plastic in the world`s oceans. If current trends in plastic production and waste management continue, approximately 12,000 million tonnes of plastic waste will be landfilled or in the natural environment by 2050, as a recent analysis shows – international cooperation is needed to reduce demand for single-use plastic products, move to sustainable plastic management and improve waste management infrastructure that promotes waste. Researchers continue to try to understand the impact of the ever-increasing plastic pollution on animal populations and fish stocks. If we continue on our current trajectory, we may not need experiments to determine the answers. Countries should agree on incentives to ensure that plastics are manufactured with a sustainable end to life.
To date, 60% of the plastics produced accumulate in landfills or are found in a natural environment (16). An international agreement should seek to establish a circular economy (11) that recovers and evaluates all plastics produced. In a waste hierarchy, materials should be reused first, then reused for alternative use and/or, third, mechanically recycled into a new product. For some products (for example. B sachets and films for food packaging), biodegradable materials can replace synthetic oil-based polymers.